Difference between revisions of "Commutative Presemifields and Semifields"

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m (On Presemifields and Semifields)
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Any finite presemifield can be represented by <math>\mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)</math>,
 
Any finite presemifield can be represented by <math>\mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)</math>,
 
for <math>p</math> a prime, <math>n</math> a positive integer, <math>\mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+)</math> additive group and <math>x\star y</math> multiplication linear in each variable.
 
for <math>p</math> a prime, <math>n</math> a positive integer, <math>\mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+)</math> additive group and <math>x\star y</math> multiplication linear in each variable.
 +
Every commutative presemifield can be transformed into a commutative semifield.
  
 
Two presemifields <math>\mathbb{S}_1=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)</math> and <math>\mathbb{S}_2=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\circ)</math> are called <span class="definition">isotopic</span>  if there exist three linear permutations <math>T,M,N</math> of <math>\mathbb{F}_{p^n}</math> such that
 
Two presemifields <math>\mathbb{S}_1=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)</math> and <math>\mathbb{S}_2=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\circ)</math> are called <span class="definition">isotopic</span>  if there exist three linear permutations <math>T,M,N</math> of <math>\mathbb{F}_{p^n}</math> such that
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==Properties==
 
==Properties==
Every commutative presemifield can be transformed into a commutative semifield.
 
 
 
Hence two quadratic planar functions <math>F,F'</math> are isotopic equivalent if their corresponding presemifields are isotopic. Moreover, we have:
 
Hence two quadratic planar functions <math>F,F'</math> are isotopic equivalent if their corresponding presemifields are isotopic. Moreover, we have:
 
* <math>F,F'</math> are CCZ-equivalent if and only if <math>\mathbb{S}_F,\mathbb{S}_{F'}</math> are strongly isotopic;
 
* <math>F,F'</math> are CCZ-equivalent if and only if <math>\mathbb{S}_F,\mathbb{S}_{F'}</math> are strongly isotopic;
 
* for <math>n</math> odd, isotopic coincides with strongly isotopic;
 
* for <math>n</math> odd, isotopic coincides with strongly isotopic;
* if <math>F,F'</math> are isotopic equivalent, then there exists a linear map <math>L</math> such that <math>F'</math> is EA-equivalent to <math>F(x+L(x))-F(x)-F(L(x))</math>.
+
* if <math>F,F'</math> are isotopic equivalent, then there exists a linear map <math>L</math> such that <math>F'</math> is EA-equivalent to <math>F(x+L(x))-F(x)-F(L(x))</math>;
 +
* any commutative presemifield of odd order can generate at most two CCZ-equivalence classes of planar DO polynomials;
 +
* if <math>\mathbb{S}_1</math> and <math>\mathbb{S}_2</math> are isotopic commutative semifields of characteristic <math>p</math> with order of middle nuclei and nuclei <math>p^m</math> and <math>p^k</math> respectively, then either one of the following is satisfied:
 +
** <math>m/k</math> is odd and the semifields are strongly isotopic,
 +
** <math>m/k</math> is even and the semifields are strongly isotopic or the only isotopisms are of the form <math>(\alpha\star N,N,L)</math> with <math>\alpha\in N_m(\mathbb{S}_1)</math> non-square.

Revision as of 10:58, 5 September 2019

Background

For a prime and a positive integer let be the finite field with elements. Let be a map from the finite field to itself. Such function admits a unique representation as a polynomial of degree at most , i.e.

.

The function is

  • linear if ,
  • affine if it is the sum of a linear function and a constant,
  • DO (Dembowski-Ostrim) polynomial if ,
  • quadratic if it is the sum of a DO polynomial and an affine function.

For Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \delta} a positive integer, the function is called differentially Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \delta} -uniform if for any pairs , with Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle a\ne0} , the equation admits at most Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \delta} solutions.

A function Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F} is called planar or perfect nonlinear (PN) if . Obviously such functions exist only for Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p} an odd prime. In the even case the smallest possible case for Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \delta} is two (APN function).

For planar function we have that the all the nonzero derivatives, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle D_aF(x)=F(x+a)-F(x)} , are permutations.

Equivalence Relations

Two functions Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F} and from Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{F}_{p^n}} to itself are called:

  • affine equivalent if Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F'=A_1\circ F\circ A_2} , where Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A_1,A_2} are affine permutations;
  • EA-equivalent (extended-affine) if , where Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A} is affine and is afffine equivalent to Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F} ;
  • CCZ-equivalent if there exists an affine permutation Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{L}} of such that Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathcal{L}(G_F)=G_{F'}} , where Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle G_F=\lbrace (x,F(x)) : x\in\mathbb{F}_{p^n}\rbrace} .

CCZ-equivalence is the most general known equivalence relation for functions which preserves differential uniformity. Affine and EA-equivalence are its particular cases. For the case of quadratic planar functions the isotopic equivalence is more general than CCZ-equivalence, where two maps are isotopic equivalent if the corresponding presemifields are isotopic.

On Presemifields and Semifields

A presemifield is a ring with left and right distributivity and with no zero divisor. A presemifield with a multiplicative identity is called a semifield. Any finite presemifield can be represented by Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)} , for Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle p} a prime, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle n} a positive integer, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+)} additive group and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle x\star y} multiplication linear in each variable. Every commutative presemifield can be transformed into a commutative semifield.

Two presemifields Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{S}_1=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)} and Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{S}_2=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\circ)} are called isotopic if there exist three linear permutations Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T,M,N} of Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{F}_{p^n}} such that Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle T(x\star y)=M(x)\circ N(y)} , for any Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle x,y\in\mathbb{F}_{p^n}} . If Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle M=N} then they are called strongly isotopic. Each commutative presemifields of odd order defines a planar DO polynomial and viceversa:

  • given Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \mathbb{S}=(\mathbb{F}_{p^n},+,\star)} let Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F_\mathbb{S}(x)=\frac{1}{2}(x\star x)} ;
  • given Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle F} let defined by .

Given a finite semifield, the subsets

for all

for all

for all

are called left, middle and right nucleus of .

The set is called the nucleus. All these sets are finite field and, when is commutative, . The order of the different nuclei are invariant under isotopism.

Properties

Hence two quadratic planar functions are isotopic equivalent if their corresponding presemifields are isotopic. Moreover, we have:

  • are CCZ-equivalent if and only if are strongly isotopic;
  • for odd, isotopic coincides with strongly isotopic;
  • if are isotopic equivalent, then there exists a linear map such that is EA-equivalent to ;
  • any commutative presemifield of odd order can generate at most two CCZ-equivalence classes of planar DO polynomials;
  • if and are isotopic commutative semifields of characteristic with order of middle nuclei and nuclei and respectively, then either one of the following is satisfied:
    • is odd and the semifields are strongly isotopic,
    • is even and the semifields are strongly isotopic or the only isotopisms are of the form with non-square.